If you’re studying for your national exam and need help with “Gateway 2 Unit 2 Cultural Issues,” you’ve come to the right place! In this post, I’ve summarized all the important topics covered in the unit – including vocabulary, functions, grammar, and writing elements. By reading through this post, you’ll be able to better understand the content and increase your chances of acing the exam. Let’s get started!
TABLE OF CONTENT
- Functions: Expressing a Lack of Understanding
- Grammar: Past Perfect
- Writing: Descriptive Paragraph
Vocabulary Gateway 2 Unit 2 Cultural Issues
Values and Their Meaning
- Culture: The arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively
- Altruism: Selflessness, generosity, and kindness
- Citizenship: The set of rights and duties
- Initiative: The ability or opportunity to act before others do
- Tolerance: The ability to accept and respect the opinions and beliefs of others
- Intolerance: Unwillingness to accept views, beliefs, or behavior that differ from one’s own
- Coexistence: The ability to live together in harmony
- Cooperation: Participating and working together towards the same end or objective
- Equity: Equal treatment to anyone
- Diversity: Showing a great deal of variety; very different
- Stereotype: A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person.
Some Values and Their Antonyms
- Altruism vs. selfishness
- Tolerance vs. intolerance
- Cooperation vs. individuality
- Equity vs. injustice
- Responsibility vs. irresponsibility
- Love vs. hatred
- Harmony vs. conflict
Some Collocations Related to Cultural Issues
- Culture diversity
- Civic education
- Moral obligations
- Cultural shock
- Common good
- Global citizenship
Compound adjectives are adjectives made up of two or more words, usually with hyphens (-) between them. We generally put a hyphen between two or more words (before a noun) when we want them to act as a single idea (adjective) that describes something.
- a well-known writer
- a brightly-lit room
- deeply-rooted traditions
- a good-looking boy
- a free-standing tower
- a tongue-tied boy
- a sun-dried fruit
- a short-sighted man
- a long-haired lady
- a world-famous singer
- a last-minute solution
- deep-sea diving
- a part-time job
Functions: Expressing a Lack of Understanding and Asking for Clarification
It is a situation when something is unclear to you and ambiguous. Expressing a lack of understanding can be done in different ways. Here are some:
1- Showing a Lack of Understanding
- I beg your pardon.
- I beg your pardon. I don’t quite understand.
- I don’t know what you mean.
- I may not follow you.
- I don’t quite see what you mean.
- I’m not sure I got your point.
- Sorry, I didn’t quite hear what you said.
- Sorry, I didn’t get your point.
- I don’t quite see what you’re getting at.
- I can’t see what you are driving at
2- Asking for Clarification
When something is not clear, then you ask for clarification. In other words, you want the interlocutor to clarify it. This can be done in many ways. Here are some:
- What do you mean by…?
- Do you mean…?
- Could you say that again, please?
- Could you repeat it, please?
- Could you clarify that, please?
- Would you elaborate on that, please?
- Could you be more explicit?
- Could you explain what you mean by…?
- Could you give us an example?
- I wonder if you could say that in a different way.
- Could you put it differently, please?
- Could you be more specific, please?