TABLE OF CONTENT
- Functions/Communication: Making Request
- Grammar: Gerund and Infinitive
- Writing: Linking Words
Vocabulary Gateway 2 Unit 1 Education
Types of Education
There are many types of education, but the most frequent ones are Formal, Non-formal, and informal education.
- Formal education: refers to the types of learning that are taking place in an educational institution, where there is a syllabus and a teacher, and is usually recognized in a qualification or a certificate.
- Non-formal education: refers to learning through a program (like formal education) but is not usually evaluated and does not lead to certification.
- Informal education: refers to any learning resulting from activities related to our daily life.
- Vocational education: Prepares learners for careers or professions related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation.
- Special education: Describes an educational alternative that focuses on the teaching of students with special (behavioral, health, academic, or physical) needs that cannot be met using traditional programs or techniques.
- Inclusive education: It addresses the learning needs of children, youth, and adults, especially those who are vulnerable to marginalization and exclusion.
- Gifted education: is a broad term for special practices, procedures, and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented.
- Basic education: The whole range of educational activities taking place in various settings (formal, non-formal, and informal) that aim at meeting basic learning needs such as reading, writing, and arithmetic.
Examples of Education
- Formal education: Secondary school, vocational training workshop, university studies.
- Non-formal education: Evening classes, literacy classes.
- Informal education: Theater, television, daily life in general.
A collocation is a pair of words that generally goes or occurs together. Here are some related to education.
- Higher education
- University graduate
- Free classes
- Learning needs
- Mixed classes
- Cultural background
- Adult illiteracy
- Education system/goals/background
- School subject/year/uniform
- Private lessons/institution/school
- Equal opportunities/rights/status
Functions/Communication: Making Request
A request is asking someone to do a favor or for something. It’s essential to be polite when doing so. Making and responding to a request can be done in different ways. The following lines will show you how.
- Could you please…….?
- Can you………….?
- Will you……….?
- Do …….(something)…… for me, please.
- Is there any chance you could…?
- Do …….(something)…… for me, will you?
- Do you think you could………?
- Could you possibly…….?
- I wonder if you could………?
- Do you mind (verb+ing)………? (it is like saying: Is there a problem if….?)
- Would you mind (verb+ing)………? (it is like saying: Is there a problem if….?)
Responding to Request
- Yes, sure.
- Yes, of course.
- Certainly yes.
- With pleasure.
- Sure, don’t worry.
- Sure, no problem.
- Oh, sorry, I can’t.
- I just can’t; I am sorry.
- I am afraid but I can’t.
- Certainly not.
- Speaker 1: Could you please help me with this exercise?
- Speaker 2: Yes, of course.
- Speaker 1: Do you mind going with me to the market?
- Speaker 2: No, I don’t mind (accepting request)
- Speaker 1: Would you mind giving your brother a lift downtown?
- Speaker 2: Yes. (refusing request).
- Speaker 1: I wonder if you could repair this engine?
- Speaker 2: Sure, don’t worry
Grammar: Gerund and Infinitive
Writing: Linking Words
- Adding information or emphasizing a statement: and, also as well as, moreover, furthermore, in addition, additionally, next, secondly, thirdly……
- Making comparison: similarly, likewise, in the same way, equally…….
- Expressing concession and contrast: although, however, yet, but, despite, whereas, in contrast, while, Conversely….
- Providing reasons: for this reason, To this end, for this purpose, because, since, so that….
- Explaining results: as, as a sequence, as a result, hence, therefore, thus, so…
- Providing examples: for example, for instance, In other words, such as….
- Drawing conclusions: as has been noted, finally, in brief, in short, to summarise, consequently, therefore, In Conclusion, In other words, accordingly ……