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Conditional and Wishes

Conditionals and Wishes


Zero Conditional (Present)

  • Structure: If + Present Simple, Present Simple
  • Use: For general truths, scientific facts, or laws of nature.
  • Examples:
    If you heat water to 100°C, it boils.

If you add two and two, you get four.

First Conditional (Likely or real future situations.)

  • Structure: If + Present Simple, Will + Infinitive
  • Use: For likely or real future situations and their probable results.
  • Examples:
    If we reduce waste, we will protect the environment.

If it rains, we will stay at home.

Second Conditional (Impossible in present)

  • Structure: If + Past Simple, Would + Infinitive
  • Use: For unlikely or hypothetical situations and their probable results in present.
  • Examples

If women ruled the world, there would be less war.

If I knew a good joke, I would tell you.

Third Conditional (Impossible in past)

  • Structure: If + Past Perfect, would/could + Have + Past Participle
  • Use: To describe a past situation that did not happen and its hypothetical result.
  • Example:
    If I had found a job here, I wouldn’t have emigrated.

If you had studied, you would have passed the exam.

 Mixed Conditionals

Use: Mixed conditionals help us talk about how a past event affects now, or how a current situation would change the past.

1. Past Affects Present

  • Structure: If + Past Perfect, Would + Base Verb
  • Example:
    If I hadn’t found work here, I wouldn’t live here now.

If you hadn’t learned to read, you couldn’t enjoy books today.

2. Present Affects Past

  • Structure: If + Past Simple, Would Have + Past Participle
  • Example:
    If you weren’t so mature, you wouldn’t have made such good decisions before.

If she wasn’t so strong, she wouldn’t have overcome her challenges. 

Note: “unless” means“if not” in conditional sentences

We will not protect the environment unless we reduce waste.
We will not protect the environment if we don’t reduce waste.


Wishes in Present

  • Structure: Subject + wish + Subject + Past Simple.
  • Examples:

I wish I had more time for sustainable development projects.

She wishes she were a member at aninternational organization.

They wish they knew more about advances in science and technology.

Wishes in Past

  • Structure: Subject + wish + Subject + Past Perfect.
  • Examples:

I wish I had studied more about women and power in college.

He wishes he had attended the seminar on sustainable development.

We wish we had invested in technology advancements earlier.

Wishes with “Would”

For wishes about behavior or actions you want to change, you can use “I wish + Subject + would + Base Verb.”

  • Examples:

She wishes her students would understand the importance of education.

We wish people would take citizenship responsibilities seriously.

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