This post provides comprehensive coverage of “Gateway 2 Unit 5 Advances in Science.” It presents essential topics, including the distinction between science and technology, key scientific vocabulary, functions for expressing opinions, the use of the Future Perfect tense in grammar, and guidance on writing descriptive essays.
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Vocabulary Gateway 2 Unit 5 Advances in Science
The differences between science and technology:
Science focuses on general knowledge; it is the process of producing knowledge via observations and investigating natural phenomena. Examples: math, physics, chemistry, astronomy……
Technology is the applied science; it is the ability to change the world with materials, and it is practical. Examples: robotics, biotechnology, communication, engineering ……
Some vocabulary related to Science
- Physics: The study of matter, energy, and the fundamental forces of nature, aiming to understand the behavior of the universe at both macroscopic and microscopic levels.
- Chemistry: The study of the composition, properties, and behavior of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.
- Biology: The scientific study of living organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment, encompassing areas such as genetics, evolution, ecology, and physiology.
- Mathematics: The abstract study of numbers, quantities, structures, and patterns, using logical reasoning and abstract concepts to explore relationships and solve problems.
- Astronomy: The study of celestial objects such as stars, planets, galaxies, and the universe as a whole, aiming to understand their origins, properties, and interactions.
- Geology: The study of Earth’s physical structure, composition, processes, and history, including the study of rocks, minerals, earthquakes, and geological formations.
- Botany: The scientific study of plants, including their structure, growth, reproduction, and interactions with other organisms and the environment.
- Zoology: The scientific study of animals, encompassing their behavior, physiology, evolution, classification, and interactions with their ecosystems.
- Meteorology: The study of Earth’s atmosphere, weather patterns, and climate, aiming to predict and understand atmospheric phenomena and their impacts.
- Oceanography: The scientific study of the oceans, including their physical, chemical, biological, and geological properties, as well as their interactions with the atmosphere and land.
Some vocabulary related to Technology
- Algorithm: a set of instructions designed to perform a specific task.
- Cloud: a network of remote servers used to store, manage, and process data.
- Cybersecurity: the practice of protecting computer systems and networks from digital attacks.
- Encryption: the process of converting data into a code to prevent unauthorized access.
- Firewall: a security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic.
- Interface: the point where two systems, subjects, organizations, etc., meet and interact with each other.
- Malware: software that is intended to harm or disrupt a computer system, such as viruses or spyware.
- Operating system: software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
- Server – a computer or program that manages access to a centralized resource or service in a network.
- Wi-Fi – a wireless networking technology that allows devices to connect to the internet or other networks.
Functions: Expressing Opinions
These are expressions that can help you in asking or giving/expressing opinions about a subject.
Asking About Opinions
- What do you think about….
- In your opinion, …?
- What’s your opinion….?
- Any initial thoughts on …?
- Do you have any particular views on …?
- Are you for or against…..?
- Do you think that …..?
- If I asked your opinion about …………, what would you say?
- Would I be correct in saying …?
- How do you feel about …?
- Do you share the view that …?
- Please tell me your opinion on…..
- Would you agree that …?
- I think…
- As far as I’m concerned,…
- To my mind,…
- According to me,…
- Some people may disagree with me, but …
- As I see it, …
- It seems to me that…
- In my point of view / my opinion,…
- From my point of view…
- To the best of my knowledge, …
- To my mind / To my way of thinking, …
- I am of the opinion that…
- I have come to the conclusion that …
- Personally speaking / Speaking for myself, …
- I’m no expert (on this), but …
- I take the view that. ..
- My personal view is that…
- In my experience…
- As far as I understand / can see/see it,…
- I agree with you / I do agree
- You’re right.
- I share the same view
- I couldn’t agree more.
- We seem to be on the same wavelength.
- It’s so lovely to meet someone who thinks that way too.
- That is logical.
- I can’t argue with that.
- (I have) No doubt about it
- That is a more convincing argument.
- That’s a good point.
- I see your point.
- (That) makes sense (to me).
- I’m afraid. I respect your point, but I can’t entirely agree with it.
- No way.
- I disagree with you.
- I don’t agree with you.
- That’s not always true.
- You could be correct, but…
- It’s hard to argue with that, but…
- I’m not sure I agree with you
- I think you might be wrong
- I can see a hole in that argument.
- That’s not the way I see it.
- Sorry, but I am not convinced.
- It is pretty old-fashioned to say that.
Grammar: The Future Perfect
The Form of the Future Perfect Tense
The Future perfect tense is written this way:
Will/shall have + past participle
– Affirmative: They will / shall have finished the school year by July.
– Negative: He shall / will not have completed the test by the end of the lesson.
– Interrogative: Will / shall you have eaten this food by then?
The Use of the Future Perfect Tense
The future perfect tense is usually used to talk about an action:
- That will be completed before a specific time in the future.
- That will be completed before another action takes place in the future.
In Morocco, the school year starts in September and finishes on the 10th of July. We can say:
Students will have done all their tests by the beginning of July.
So before the 10th of July comes, the action of doing tests will have been completed, as shown in this picture:
The future perfect tense is usually used with a time expression starting with By: By the next week, by the coming summer, by then, by that time, by the 1st…….
Writing: Descriptive Essay
What is a Descriptive Paragraph?
A descriptive paragraph is a piece of writing where you describe a person, a place, a feeling, a situation, or an event. The use of adjectives characterizes it. By using words, you make the reader see what you are describing.
This lesson focuses on DESCRIBING A PERSON.
To describe a person, you need to talk about his/her:
Physical Appearance: the way he/she looks like
- Height: tall, short, medium height…
- Build: frail, slim, thin, skinny, stocky, plump, fat, chubby, large, heavy, well-built, fit…
- Age: young, teenager, middle-aged, elderly…
- Face: round, oval, wrinkled, furrowed, dimpled, sun-tanned, fair-skinned, baby-faced, chiseled…
- Eyes: big, round, blue, hazel, small, piggy, narrow, bloodshot…
- Hair: bald; straight, curly, spiky, wavy, black…
- Clothes: casual, shabby, bright, tidy, untidy, messy…
Personality: his/her psychological traits or attitudes
- Intelligent, witty, clever, gifted, brainy…
- shy, timid, introverted, extroverted, optimistic, pessimistic, sensitive, sensible, relaxed, tense…
- compassionate, considerate, courteous, generous, exuberant, practical…
- sociable, quarrelsome, argumentative, logical, rational, easy-going, even-tempered, honest, trustworthy, reliable, sincere…
Structure of a Descriptive Paragraph
It’s the 1st sentence in your paragraph where you directly say who you are going to talk about
- Talk about his/her physical Appearance.
- Then talk about his/her personality.
Or vice versa. You may begin by describing his/her personality, and then you move to describe his/her physical Appearance.
You may also add what is unique about that person
It is the last sentence in your paragraph where you rephrase what you said in your Topic Sentence.
An Example of a Descriptive Paragraph
(Topic Sentence) Bob is my best friend at school. (Supporting Sentences: Physical Appearance) I’ve known him since primary school. He is a tall person with a strong body. He has a round face with brown eyes. His hair is black and curly. Though young, he looks older than his age because of some wrinkles on his face. He also has dimples on his cheeks which makes him look handsome. Bob usually wears casual clothes. He is not keen on brands and fashion. (Supporting Sentences: Personality)As for his personality, Bob is a shy and introverted person. He does not like being around people. He is a brainy guy. We call him the geek because of his love for IT. Not to mention that he is an honest and trustworthy person. (Concluding Sentence) To sum up, Bob is one of the people I admire most.